Saturday, January 22

Age, Sex, Vaccine Dosage, Chronic Disease: Understanding of Severe Covid Risk Factors Is Increasing | Coronavirus


Approximately 18.5 million people, or 24.4% of the UK population, are at increased risk of developing severe Covid due to underlying health problems. It is well known that older people are at high risk, but understanding of all risk factors is incomplete. Experts say this knowledge must be developed quickly to support policy and planning, given that social restrictions will end in England on July 19.

Vulnerable people with underlying health problems.

The conditions most likely to be mentioned on death certificates where Covid-19 is mentioned are diabetes (mentioned in 21% of death certificates where Covid was cited), hypertensive diseases, chronic kidney disease, obstructive pulmonary disease chronic and dementia. Various studies they also report an increased risk of adverse outcomes in obese and morbidly obese people.

The British Heart Foundation said experts had tested how vaccines worked in people with most health conditions, including heart conditions, and found the vaccines to be “just as effective.”

The foundation said: “The only possible exception is people who take immunosuppressants or who are immunosuppressed. This is because they may not elicit the same immune response to the vaccine. Research is underway in the UK to better understand this. The vaccine is generally recommended for immunosuppressed or immunosuppressed people. “

People who are not vaccinated or who have only received one dose

We know that the Delta coronavirus variant, which has spread across the UK, nearly doubles the risk of hospitalization. Public health experts have found that people infected with the Delta variant were 85% more likely to be admitted to the hospital than those infected with the Alpha variant.

With the elderly population better protected by vaccination, the majority of those hospitalized now are younger than during previous Covid waves and have shorter stays.

But according to a England Public Health In a study published in May, a single dose of the AstraZeneca or Pfizer / BioNTech vaccine reduces the risk of developing symptoms due to the Delta variant by 33%. After two doses, the Pfizer vaccine was found to be 88% effective against symptomatic Delta variant disease.

Elderly people

Almost 9 million of the 18.5 million people at risk, according to current UK guidance, they are over 69 years old.

That means 66.2% of people over the age of 69 are at risk, peaking at 79.4% among people aged 85 to 89 in England. This compares with a national ‘risk prevalence’ of 24.4% of the UK population considered moderate or high risk.

Among people already diagnosed with Covid, people who were 80 and older were 70 times more likely to die than those under 40.

Kids

Of the national “risk prevalence” of 24.4%, children between the ages of two and nine account for 5.1%, and children of all school years account for 8.3%. “Children can transmit the virus. They are susceptible to it, ”said Anne Rimoin, a professor of epidemiology at the University of California, Los Angeles.

More than 640,000 children in England missed school last week due to Covid-19. The number of schoolchildren with confirmed Covid infections increased from 15,000 on June 24 to 28,000 on July 1, while the number of self-isolation due to a suspected Covid contact within the school increased from 279,000 to 471,000 last week. Including out-of-school contacts, more than 560,000 children were self-isolating.

In Florida, the number of children who had going to the hospital with Covid-19 increased by 23% in eight days last summer. And a study from South Korea showed that children as young as 10 years could transmit Covid within a home as easily as adults might.

Pregnant women

The BMJ has published data which found that the estimated incidence of hospital admission with confirmed Covid infection during pregnancy was 4.9 per 1,000 maternity wards.

Underlying health conditions appear to increase the risk of developing severe Covid in pregnant women. Among women who were pregnant on March 5, 2014 12.9% were at risk due to underlying health problems. In 2020, a third of pregnant women admitted to hospital with Covid had an underlying health condition.

The study also found that 12 (5%) of 265 babies tested positive for Sars-CoV-2 RNA, six of them within the first 12 hours after birth.

Men

Men are more likely to suffer from severe Covid, including hospitalization and ICU admission, and those over the age of 50 tend to suffer from the most acute symptoms of the coronavirus.

The risk of death among those diagnosed with Covid it is also higher in men, and working-age men diagnosed with Covid are twice as likely to die as women.

Women

A higher proportion of women are at risk of contracting Covid But the association varies with age: Research suggests that men are more likely than women to be at risk after age 55.

Long Covid victims, however, are relatively young and overwhelmingly female – women who get Long Covid outnumber men by as much as four to one. Some experts suggest that the total proportion of long-term female Covid patients could be even higher, potentially standing at 70-80%.

BAME

The risk of dying from Covid is higher in Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic Groups (BAME) than in White ethnic groups.

This is the opposite of what was seen in the pre-Covid era, when death rates were lower in Asian and black ethnic groups than in white ethnic groups.

After taking into account the effects of sex, age, deprivation and region, ethnic Bangladeshi people were found to have roughly twice the risk of death than white British people.

People of Chinese, Indian, Pakistani, other Asian, Caribbean and other black ethnicities had a higher risk of death, between 10% and 50%, compared to British white people.

These analyzes do not take into account the effect of occupation, comorbidities or obesity.

The last Oxford OpenSafely data show that vaccination rates in black communities are consistently 20 percentage points below vaccination rates for the white community. For the age group 80 and over, vaccination coverage has been approximately 75% for blacks and approximately 95% for whites.


www.theguardian.com

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