Thursday, November 26

How the ADAS of our car work and what are they for

Questions and Answers About ADAS

1. What are ADAS systems?

Included under this name is a set of systems that are characterized by providing assistance to the driver to increase safety and facilitate driving.

Some ADAS systems simply inform the driver of situations in their surroundings. Others alert you to a risky situation, for example, that there is a large speed differential with the vehicle in front of us or that we are stepping on the line and we could get off the road. And when the driver ignores these warnings, there are systems that can even take control of the brakes and / or steering of the vehicle to avoid a road departure or a collision, or to reduce its consequences. Yes: a car that is equipped with an autonomous emergency braking system can brake on its own if it considers that there is an imminent risk of collision. This ability to drive the car makes some ADAS systems the forerunners of automated driving.

The most common ADAS systems are Adaptive Cruise Control, Lane Keeping Assist, Adaptive Speed ​​Limiter, Blind Spot Warning, Forward Collision Warning, Exit Warning or Involuntary Lane Change, Rear Cross Traffic Warning and Braking. automatic emergency; but there are many others.

ADAS systems are composed of a set of sensors, a unit or “brain” that fuses and interprets the information provided by them, and the wiring and connections necessary to link them and interact with other components of the vehicle.

2. How do they work?

ADAS systems have “eyes” (cameras, radar, ultrasounds and lidar, mainly) that collect information based on their technical capabilities. For example, cameras recognize colors and have a wide range of 50 to 500 meters, and up to 180º; and they recognize people, animals and objects through algorithms of their software and artificial intelligence. The radar, however, locates static and moving objects in the vicinity of the vehicle, and determines their relative speed, distance and position.

All the information collected is sent to the control unit of the system, which merges all this data and generates a reliable recognition of the vehicle’s environment: the road, other vehicles, pedestrians, animals, signs … This information is contrasted with the data on the movement of the vehicle itself (speed, situation, acceleration, braking, turning …) and with the actions of the driver, to detect risky situations and act accordingly, either by alerting or taking control of the car.

3. Are they really effective?

Yes, driver assistance systems help you drive more safely and reduce the incidence of human error. In fact, thanks to them, the accident figures will be significantly reduced as they gain presence in the general fleet of vehicles. The DGT has estimated that, if all cars were equal to these driving aids, the consequences of 57% of accidents in Spain would be avoided or reduced.

The EU has estimated that with the proposal for mandatory ADAS systems from 2022, 25,000 road deaths can be avoided in the next 15 years in the European Union. And according to a study by the Association of German Insurance Companies GDV (General Association of German Insurance Companies), claims for claims will be reduced by 25% in 2035, compared to 2015 figures, thanks to the effectiveness of these security systems. Half of this reduction in accidents will be thanks to autonomous emergency braking, which will prevent a large number of rear-end collisions and will reduce the number of victims and injuries caused by whiplash; and to the lane change and maintenance assistants, who will avoid many collisions on expressways due to lane change maneuvers are signaling.

4. What cars carry them?

Most of the models on the market can equip, as standard or optionally, some of these systems. And its implementation in Spain is growing at an exponential rate. In Spain, almost one out of every three new cars sold in 2019 was equipped with a blind spot detector (29%) and a lane keeping system (27.5%); autonomous emergency braking (24.5%), adaptive cruise control (24%) and signal recognition (20%) are also widespread, according to data from the Arval Mobility Observatory.

In addition, the EU has drawn up a regulation that requires that all cars that are sold from the year 2022 must be equipped as standard with devices such as an intelligent speed assistant, a black box, an emergency braking signal or a detector reverse. And in the following years more systems will be introduced.

Alvaro Gomez, director of National Road Safety Observatory, believes’ in the potential benefit of making all these systems mandatory. Intelligent speed control could reduce accidents by 20%, while autonomous braking could prevent the 30 cyclists and 250 pedestrians who die each year in cities.

5. Do they need maintenance?

From the user’s point of view, these systems do not require any special attention or maintenance, beyond keeping the area of ​​the windshield where the cameras are housed clean. It is the official services, or authorized workshops, who electronically check that there are no faults in the system, according to the maintenance scheduled in the service book.

In the event of an accident that affects any of its elements, after the repair the cameras and sensors will have to be recalibrated so that they work properly, something that especially affects the windshield. When a new one is replaced and installed, the cameras and sensors of the ADAS systems have to be recalibrated to ensure that they provide accurate information to the security systems. This recalibration must be carried out by professionals with the appropriate training, experience, methodology and technology.

Carglass is the only automotive glass specialist that has the technology to recalibrate Advanced Driver Assistance Systems in 100% of the national territory.

6. Can ADAS systems fail?

ADAS systems can experience malfunctions because their cameras and sensors have not been recalibrated, or that operation has been done incorrectly, after the replacement of a windshield.

When the sensors fail due to a bad calibration, the car is not able to perform a reliable recognition of the environment and the safety systems fail, which can cause an untimely braking or, worse, a collision or being run over. The Belron Group has conducted tests in the UK with the MIRA institute to assess the effects of poor calibration on the operation of ADAS systems. Progressive degradation of the performance of the AEB automatic emergency braking system was demonstrated when the calibration of the windshield-mounted camera deviated from the manufacturer’s specifications.

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